Hypoglycemia [Low Blood Sugar] : Causes, Signs & Symptoms & Treatment

Hypoglycemia [Low Blood Sugar] : Causes, Signs & Symptoms & Treatment
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Hypoglycemia [Low Blood Sugar] : Causes, Signs & Symptoms & Treatment

Glucose is the main source of energy production in our body. Normal blood glucose levels should be between 60 to 140 mg/dl in order to supply cells of the body with its required energy. Euglycemia, or blood glucose within the normal range, is naturally ideal for the body’s proper functioning. A good balance between hormones of the pancreas, including insulin and glucagon, intestinal and adrenal hormones is required to maintain normal blood glucose levels.
Cells can also use proteins and fats in order to produce energy. However, glucose is the major energy source in our body.
Glucose is absorbed through the intestines in to the blood stream and then stored by the body in the form of glycogen within the liver and muscle tissue.
Regulation of blood glucose is largely done through the pancreatic hormones. Insulin, and glucagon are the two most important ones. Each of these hormones have opposite actions.
Insulin, secreted by the pancreatic beta cells, lowers the blood glucose levels. Whereas glucagon, secreted by the pancreatic alpha cells, increases the blood glucose levels.
Insulin decreases blood glucose levels by the following mechanisms.
Insulin promotes glucose uptake by the cells, especially in the muscle and fat tissue.
It also reduces the production of new glucose by the liver. In addition, insulin promotes glycogen production in the liver, using glucose. Through these mechanisms, insulin reduces the blood glucose level to a normal after a meal.
On the other hand, glucagon has the opposite of these actions. And its main job is to maintain a healthy blood glucose level between meals.
Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is a clinical situation characterized by a reduction in plasma glucose concentration to a level that is far below the normal.
The glucose level at which an individual becomes symptomatic is highly variable, although a plasma glucose level less than 50 mg/dl is generally considered the threshold.
Causes of hypoglycemia are varied, but it is seen most often in diabetic patients. Hypoglycemia may result from medication changes or overdoses, infection, diet changes, metabolic changes over time, or activity changes. Other causes include gastro-intestinal problems, fasting, insulin secreting tumors, endocrine problems, and liver disease.
Some common medications that can cause hypoglycemia include, oral hypoglycemics such as phenylbutazone, insulin, propranolol, clofibrate, sulfonamides, isoniazid, methanol, methotrexate, tricyclic antidepressants, thiazide diuretics etc.
Early signs of hypoglycemia may include the following.
Heavy sweating. Dizziness. Extreme hunger. Fatigue. And a fast and pounding heartbeat, also known as palpitations.
As hypoglycemia worsens, signs and symptoms may include the following.
Confusion. Abnormal behavior. Visual disturbances such as blurred vision. Seizures. And loss of consciousness.

Medications that are used in the treatment of hypoglycemia include the following.
Glucose supplements such as dextrose.
Glucose elevating agents such as glucagon. And insulin secretion inhibitors such as diazoxide and octreotide.

Ok. That is about hypoglycemia in a nutshell.
Hope someone found this video interesting and helpful.
Thanks for watching.

#Hypoglycemia #LowBloodGlucose #HypoglycemiaSymptoms
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6 Comments

  1. Healthy N Happy Life

    Thanks, this is exactly what I was looking for.

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